LBC1689 – Ch30 – The Lord’s Supper


Chapter 30

30.1 The supper of our Lord Jesus was instituted by him the same night he was betrayed,1 to be observed in his churches2 until the end of the world3 as a perpetual remembrance [of him] and to show forth the sacrifice of himself in his death.4 It was also instituted to confirm the faith of believers in all the benefits in Christ’s death,5 for their spiritual nourishment and growth in him,6 for their further engagement in and commitment to all the duties they owe him,7 and to be a bond and pledge of their fellowship with him and with one another.8

(1) 1Co 11:23; Mat 26:20-26; Mar 14:17-22; Luk 22:19-23
(2) Act 2:41-42; 20:7;1Co 11:17-22,33-34
(3) Mar 14:24-25; Luk 22:17-22; 1Co 11:24-26
(4) 1Co 11:24-26; Mat 26:27-28; Luk 22:19-20
(5) Rom 4:11
(6) Joh 6:29,35,47-58
(7) 1Co 11:25
(8) 1Co 10:16-17

30.2 In this ordinance Christ is not offered up to his Father, nor is any real sacrifice made for remission of sin of the living or the dead. It is only a memorial of that one offering up of Christ by himself upon the cross once for all.1 It is also a spiritual offering of all possible praise to God for [Christ’s work].2 So the Roman Catholic sacrifice of the mass, as they call it, is utterly abominable and defamatory of Christ’s own sacrifice which is the only propitiation for all the sins of the elect.

(1) Joh 19:30; Heb 9:25-28; 10:10-14; Luk 22:19; 1Co 11:24-25
(2) Mat 26:26-27,30 with Heb 13:10-16

30.3 In this ordinance the Lord Jesus has appointed his ministers to pray and to bless the elements of bread and wine (so setting them apart from a common to a holy use), and to take and break the bread, then to take the cup, and to give both to the communicants, participating also themselves.1

(1) 1Co 11:23-26; Mat 26:26-28; Mar 14:22-25; Luk 22:19-22

30.4 The denial of the cup to the people,1 worshipping the elements, lifting them up or carrying them about for adoration, and reserving them for any pretended religious use,2 are all contrary to the nature of this ordinance and to the institution of Christ.3

(1) Mat 26:27; Mar 14:23; 1Co 11:25-28
(2) Exo 20:4-5
(3) Mat 15:9

30.5 The outward elements in this ordinance, when correctly set apart for the use ordained by Christ, bear such a strong relation to the Lord crucified, that they are sometimes truly, but figuratively, called by the name of the things they represent, namely, the body and blood of Christ.1 However, in substance and nature, they still remain truly and only bread and wine as they were before.2

(1) 1Co 11:27; Mat 26:26-28
(2) 1Co 11:26-28; Mat 26:29

30.6 The doctrine commonly called transubstantiation, which maintains that the substance of bread and wine is changed into the substance of Christ’s body and blood when consecrated by a priest or by some other way, is repugnant not only to Scripture,1 but even to common sense and reason. It overthrows the nature of the ordinance, and has been and is the cause of numerous superstitions and gross idolatries.

(1) Mat 26:26-29; Luk 24:36-43,50-51; Joh 1:14; 20:26-29; Act 1:9-11; 3:21; 1Co 11:24-26; Luk 12:1; Rev 1:20; Gen 17:10-11; Eze 37:11; Gen 41:26-27

30.7 Worthy recipients, when outwardly partaking of the visible elements in this ordinance,1 also receive them inwardly by faith, truly and in fact, not as flesh and body but spiritually. In so doing they feed upon Christ crucified, and receive all the benefits of his death.2 The body and blood of Christ are not present physically, but spiritually by the faith of believers in the ordinance, just as the elements themselves are to their outward senses.3

(1) 1Co 11:28
(2) Joh 6:29,35,47-58
(3) 1Co 10:16

30.8 All ignorant and ungodly people who are unfit to enjoy fellowship with Christ, are equally unworthy of the Lord’s table, and cannot, without great sin against him, partake of these holy mysteries, or be admitted to them while they remain as they are.1 Indeed, whoever participates unworthily is guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, eating and drinking judgment on themselves.2

(1) Mat 7:6; Eph 4:17-24; 5:3-9; Exo 20:7,16; 1Co 5:9-13; 2Jo 1:10; Act 2:41-42; 20:7; 1Co 11:17-22,33-34
(2) 1Co 11:20-22,27-34




LBC1689- Ch.29-Baptism

Chapter 29

29.1 Baptism is an ordinance of the New Testament, ordained by Jesus Christ, to be to the person baptized a sign of fellowship with Christ in his death and resurrection, of being grafted into him,1 of remission of sins,2 and of giving up oneself to God, through Jesus Christ, to live and walk in newness of life.3

(1) Rom 6:3-5; Col 2:12; Gal 3:27
(2) Mar 1:4; Act 22:16
(3) Rom 6:4

29.2 Those who actually profess repentance towards God, faith in, and obedience to our Lord Jesus Christ, are the only proper subjects for this ordinance.1

(1) Mat 3:1-12; Mar 1:4-6; Luk 3:3-6; Mat 28:19-20; Mar 16:15-16; Joh 4:1-2; 1Co 1:13-17; Act 2:37-41; 8:12-13,36-38; 9:18; 10:47-48; 11:16; 15:9; 16:14-15,31-34; 18:8; 19:3-5; 22:16; Rom 6:3-4; Gal 3:27; Col 2:12; 1Pe 3:21; Jer 31:31-34; Phi 3:3; Joh 1:12-13; Mat 21:43

29.3 The outward element to be used in this ordinance is water, in which the person is to be baptised1 in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.2

(1) Mat 3:11; Act 8:36,38; 22:16
(2) Mat 28:18-20

29.4 Immersion, or dipping the person in water, is essential for the proper administration of this ordinance.1

(1) 2Ki 5:14; Psa 69:2; Isa 21:4; Mar 1:5,8-9; Joh 3:23; Act 8:38; Rom 6:4; Col 2:12; Mar 7:3-4; 10:38-39; Luk 12:50; 1Co 10:1-2; Mat 3:11; Act 1:5,8; 2:1-4,17

LBC1689 – Ch. 28- The Ordinances

Chapter 28

28.1 Baptism and the Lord’s Supper are ordinances explicitly and sovereignly appointed by the Lord Jesus, the only lawgiver,1 to be continued in his church to the end of the world.2

(1) Mat 28:19-20; 1Co 11:24-25
(2) Mat 28:18-20; Rom 6:3-4; 1Co 1:13-17; Gal 3:27; Eph 4:5; Col 2:12; 1Pe 3:21; 1Co 11:26; Luk 22:14-20

28.2 These holy appointments are to be administered by those who are qualified and called to do so, according to the commission of Christ.1

(1) Mat 24:45-51; Luk 12:41-44; 1Co 4:1; Tit 1:5-7

LBC 1689 | Ch. 27- The Fellowship of Believers


Chapter 27

27.1 All believers are united to Jesus Christ1 their Head by his Spirit and by faith,2 although this does not make them one person with him.3 Therefore they have fellowship in his graces, sufferings, death, resurrection, and glory.4 Being united to one another in love, they have fellowship in each other’s gifts and graces,5 and are obliged to discharge their duties, both public and private, in an orderly way so as to ensure their mutual good in both spiritual and temporal matters.6

(1) Eph 1:4; Joh 17:2,6; 2Co 5:21; Rom 6:8; 8:17; 8:2; 1Co 6:17; 2Pe 1:4
(2) Eph 3:16-17; Gal 2:20; 2Co 3:17-18
(3) 1Co 8:6; Col 1:18-19; 1Ti 6:15-16; Isa 42:8; Psa 45:7; Heb 1:8-9
(4) 1Jo 1:3; Joh 1:16; 15:1-6; Eph 2:4-6; Rom 4:25; 6:1-6; Phi 3:10; Col 3:3-4
(5) Joh 13:34-35; 14:15; Eph 4:15; 1Pe 4:10; Rom 14:7-8; 1Co 3:21-23; 12:7,25-27
(6) Rom 1.12; 12:10-13; 1Th 5.11,14; 1Pe 3:8; 1Jo 3.17-18; Gal 6.10

27.2 By their profession, believers are obliged to maintain a holy fellowship and communion in the worship of God and in performing whatever spiritual services may promote their mutual edification.1 They should also relieve one another in temporal things according to their various abilities and needs.2 According to the rule of the Gospel, this fellowship applies particularly to family and church relationships,3but as God offers opportunity, this fellowship is to be extended to all the ‘household of faith’, that is, all those in every place who call on the name of the Lord Jesus.4 Nevertheless, this fellowship with one another as believers does not take away or infringe on the personal ownership that each one has of his goods and possessions.5

(1) Heb 3:12-13; 10:24-25
(2) Act 11:29-30; 2Co 8-9; Gal 2; Rom 15
(3) 1Ti 5:8,16; Eph 6:4; 1Co 12:27
(4) Act 11:29-30; 2Co 8-9; Gal 2; 6:10; Rom 15
(5) Act 5:4; Eph 4:28; Exo 20:15

LBC1689–Ch. 26 The Church

Chapter 26

26.1 The universal church1 (brought into being by the internal work of the Spirit and truth of grace) may be called the invisible church. It consists of the complete number of the elect who have been, who are, or who shall be gathered into one under Christ its Head. The church is the bride, the body, the fullness of Christ who fills all in all.2

(1) Mat 16:18; 1Co 12:28; Eph 1:22; 4:11-15; 5:23-25,27,29,32; Col 1:18,24; Heb 12:23
(2) Eph 1:22; 4:11-15; 5:23-25,27,29,32; Col 1:18,24; Rev 21:9-14

26.2 All people throughout the world who profess the faith of the Gospel and render obedience to God by Christ according to the Gospel, and who do not destroy their own profession by any fundamental errors, or by unholy behavior, are and may be called visible saints.1 All local2 congregations ought to be constituted of such people.3

(1) 1Co 1:2; Rom 1:7-8; Act 11:26; Mat 16:18; 18:15-20; 1Co 5:1-9
(2) Original, particular
(3) Mat 18:15-20; Act 2:37-42; 4:4; Rom 1:7; 1Co 5:1-9

26.3 The purest churches under heaven are subject to mixture and error,1 and some have degenerated so much that they have ceased to be churches of Christ and have become ‘synagogues of Satan’.2Nevertheless, Christ has always had, and always will have to the end of time a kingdom in this world, made up of those who believe in him and profess his name.3

(1) 1Co 1:11; 5:1; 6:6; 11:17-19; 3Jo 1:9-10; Rev 2:1-3:22
(2) Rev 2:5 with 1:20; 1Ti 3:14-15; Rev 18:2
(3) Mat 16:18; 24:14; 28:20; Mar 4:30-32; Psa 72:16-18; 102:28; Isa 9:6-7; Rev 12:17; 20:7-9

26.4 The Lord Jesus Christ is the head of the church. In him is vested, by the appointment of the Father in a supreme and sovereign manner, all authority for the calling, institution, order and government of the church.1 The Pope of Rome cannot in any sense be the head of the church, but he is the antichrist, that ‘man of lawlessness’, and ‘son of destruction’, who exalts himself in the church against Christ and all that is called God, whom the Lord shall destroy with the brightness of his coming.2

(1) Col 1:18; Eph 4:11-16; 1:20-23; 5:23-32; 1Co 12:27-28; Joh 17:1-3; Mat 28:18-20; Act 5:31; Joh 10:14-16
(2) 2Th 2:2-9

26.5 In executing the authority entrusted to him, the Lord Jesus, through the ministry of his Word and by his Spirit, calls to himself out of the world those who are given to him by the Father.1 They are called to walk before him in the ways of obedience which he prescribes for them in his Word.2 He commands those who are so called to form local3 societies or churches for their mutual edification and to engage in the public worship which he requires of them while in the world.4

(1) Joh 10:16,23; 12:32; 17:2; Act 5:31-32
(2) Mat 28:20
(3) Original, particular
(4) Mat 18:15-20; Act 14:21-23; Tit 1:5; 1Ti 1:3; 3:14-16; 5:17-22

26.6 The members of these churches are ‘saints’1 by calling and they visibly demonstrate and give evidence of their obedience to the call of Christ by their profession and walk.2 They willingly consent to walk together according to Christ’s instructions, giving themselves to the Lord and to one another by the will of God, affirming their subjection to the directives of the Gospel.3

(1) i.e. holy ones
(2) Mat 28:18-20; Act 14:22-23; Rom 1:7; 1Co 1:2 with 1:13-17; 1Th 1:1 with 1:2-10; Act 2:37-42; 4:4; 5:13-14
(3) Act 2:41-42; 5:13-14; 2Co 9:13

26.7 To each church so gathered according to the mind [of Christ] as declared in his Word, the Lord has given all the power and authority required to conduct the form of worship and discipline which he has appointed for them to observe. He has also given commands and rules for the right and proper use of that power.1

(1) Mat 18:17-20; 1Co 5:4-5,13; 2Co 2:6-8

26.8 A local1 Church, gathered and organized according to the mind of Christ, consists of officers and members. The officers appointed by Christ to be chosen and set apart by the church are bishops or elders, and deacons. They are appointed particularly to oversee what the Lord has ordained, and to execute the powers and duties which the Lord has entrusted to them or to which he calls them. This pattern is to be continued to the end of the world.2

(1) Original, particular
(2) Phi 1:1; 1Ti 3:1-13; Act 20:17,28; Tit 1:5-7; 1Pe 5:2

26.9 The way appointed by Christ for calling any person qualified and gifted by the Holy Spirit1 for the office of bishop or elder, is that he is to be chosen by the communal vote of the church itself.2 He shall be solemnly set apart by fasting and prayer, with the laying on of hands by the elders of the church (if there are any previously appointed bishops or elders).3 Similarly, a deacon is also to be chosen by vote of the church and set apart by prayer, with the laying on of hands.4

(1) Eph 4:11; 1Ti 3:1-13
(2) Act 6:1-7; 14:23 with Mat 18:17-20; 1Co 5:1-13
(3) 1Ti 4:14; 5:22
(4) Act 6:1-7

26.10 The work of pastors is to give constant attention to the service of Christ in his churches, in the ministry of the Word and prayer, and by watching over their [members’] souls as they must give an account to Christ.1 Therefore the churches to which they minister have an obligation to give them all due respect, and also to provide ‘all good things’ according to their ability,2 so that they may have a comfortable income without being entangled in secular affairs,3 and may also be able to exercise hospitality towards others.4 This is required by the law of nature and by the specific command of our Lord Jesus who has ordained that those who preach the Gospel should live by the Gospel.5

(1) Act 6:4; 1Ti 3:2; 5:17; Heb 13:17
(2) 1Ti 5:17-18; 1Co 9:14; Gal 6:6-7
(3) 2Ti 2:4
(4) 1Ti 3:2
(5) 1Co 9:6-14; 1Ti 5:18

26.11 Although the bishops or pastors of the churches are obliged to regularly preach the Word as part of their office, yet the work of preaching the Word is not exclusively confined to them. Others who are also gifted and qualified by the Holy Spirit for the task, and who are approved and called by the church, may and ought to perform it.1

(1) Act 8:5 11:19-21; 1Pe 4:10-11

26.12 All believers are obliged to join themselves to local1 churches when and where they have opportunity to do so, so that all who are admitted to the privileges of the church, are also subject to the correction and government of the church in accordance with the rule of Christ.2

(1) Original, particular
(2) 1Th 5:14; 2Th 3:6,14-15; 1Co 5:9-13; Heb 13:17

26.13 No church members who have been offended by a fellow member, and who have followed their prescribed duty towards the person they are offended at, may disturb church order in any way. Nor should they absent themselves from the meetings of the church or the administration of the ordinances because of the offence, rather, they should wait upon Christ and the further actions of the church.1

(1) Mat 18:15-17; Eph 4:2-3; Col 3:12-15; 1Jo 2:7-11,18-19; Mat 28:15-17; Eph 4:2-3; Mat 28:20

26.14 Each church and all its members are obliged to pray continually for the good and prosperity of all Christ’s churches everywhere. At all times churches should assist all believers within the limits of their area and calling in exercising their gifts and graces.1 Therefore, when churches have been planted by the providence of God so that they may enjoy the opportunity and advantage [of fellowship],2 they should seek fellowship amongst themselves to promote peace, increase love, and mutual edification.3

(1) Joh 13:34-35; 17:11,21-23; Eph 4:11-16; 6:18; Psa 122:6; Rom 16:1-3; 3Jo 1:8-10 with 2Jo 1:5-11; Rom 15:26; 2Co 8:1-4,16-24; 9:12-15; Col 2:1 with 1:3,4,7 and 4:7,12
(2) Gal 1:2,22; Col 4:16; Rev 1:4; Rom 16:1-2; 3Jo 1:8-10
(3) 1Jo 4:1-3 with 2Jo and 3Jo; Rom 16:1-3; 2Co 9:12-15; Jos 22

26.15 When difficulties or differences arise in points of doctrine or [church] administration which concern the peace unity and edification of churches in general or any single church, or when a member or members of a church are injured by disciplinary proceedings not consistent with truth [in the Word] and [church] order, it is according to the mind of Christ that a number of churches in fellowship together, through their representatives,1 should meet to consider the matter in dispute, give their advice about it and report to all the churches concerned.2 However, when these representatives1 are assembled, they are not entrusted with any real church power nor with any jurisdiction over the churches themselves; they cannot exercise discipline over any churches or persons, nor impose their conclusions on the churches or officers.3

(1) Original, messengers
(2) Gal 2:2; Pro 3:5-7; 12:15; 13:10
(3) 1Co 7:25,36,40; 2Co 1:24; 1Jo 4:1

LBC1689 – Marriage

Chapter 25

25.1 Marriage is to be between one man and one woman. It is not lawful for any man to have more than one wife, nor for any woman to have more than one husband at the same time.1

(1) Gen 2:24 with Mat 19:5-6; 1Ti 3:2; Tit 1:6

25.2 Marriage was ordained for the mutual help of husband and wife,1 for the increase of the human race with legitimate children,2 and for preventing immorality.3

(1) Gen 2:18; Pro 2:17; Mal 2:14
(2) Gen 1:28; Psa 127:3-5; 128:3-4
(3) 1Co 7:2,9

25.3 It is lawful for all sorts of people to marry who are able to give their rational consent,1 yet it is the duty of Christians to marry only in the Lord. Therefore those who profess the true faith should not marry unbelievers or idolaters. Nor should the godly be unequally yoked by marrying those who lead evil lives, or who maintain heresy.

(1) 1Co 7:39; 2Co 6:14; 1Ti 4:3; Heb 13:4
(2) 1Co 7:39; 2Co 6:14

25.4 Marriage must not to be contracted within the degrees of blood relationship or kinship forbidden in the Word, nor can such incestuous marriages ever be made lawful by any human law or consent of parties so that such people may live together as man and wife.1

(1) Lev 18:6-18; Amo 2:7; Mar 6:18; 1Co 5:1

[The following two paragraphs are in the Westminster Confession, but not in the Baptist Confession]

25.5 When adultery or fornication committed after an engagement contract is detected before marriage, there are just grounds for the innocent party to dissolve the contract.1 In the case of adultery after marriage, it is lawful for the innocent party to sue for a divorce,2 and after the divorce to marry another—it is as if the offending party were dead.3

(1) Mat 1:18-20
(2) Mat 5:31-32
(3) Mat 19:9; Rom 7:2-3

25.6 Human corruption is such that clever arguments will be brought to separate those whom God has joined together in marriage. Yet nothing but adultery, or wilful desertion that cannot be healed by the church or civil authority, is sufficient cause for dissolving the bond of marriage.1 Such dissolution is to be conducted in public and an orderly course of proceedings is to be observed; the persons concerned in it should not be left to their own wills and discretion.2

(1) Mat 19:8-9; Rom 7:2-3; 1Co 7:15; Mat 19:6
(2) Deu 24:1-4

LBC1689 – Civil Government

Chapter 24

24.1 God, the supreme Lord and King of all the world, has ordained civil authorities1 to be under him and over the people,2 for his own glory and the public good.3 For this purpose he has armed them with the authority to use force,4 to defend and encourage those who do good, and to punish evil doers.5

(1) Original, magistrates
(2) Psa 82:1; Luk 12:48; Rom 13:1-6; 1Pe 2:13-14
(3) Gen 6:11-13 with 9:5-6; Psa 58:1-2; 72:14; 82:1-4; Pro 21:15; 24:11-12; 29:14,26; 31:5; Eze 7:23; 45:9; Dan 4:27; Mat 22:21; Rom 13:3-4; 1Ti 2:2; 1Pe 2:14
(4) Original, the power of the sword
(5) Gen 9:6; Pro 16:14; 19:12; 20:2; 21:15; 28:17; Act 25:1; Rom 13:4; 1Pe 2:13-14

24.2 It is lawful for Christians to accept and carry out the duties of public office1 when called upon to so.2 In the performance of such office they are particularly responsible for maintaining justice and peace in accordance with the wholesome laws of the nation. For that purpose they may (in terms of the New Testament) lawfully engage in war if it is just and necessary.3

(1) Original, of a magistrate
(2) Exo 22:8-9,28-29; Daniel; Nehemiah; Pro 14:35; 16:10,12; 20:26,28; 25:2; 28:15-16; 29:4,14; 31:4-5; Rom 13:2,4,6
(3) Luk 3:14; Rom 13:4

24.3 As civil authorities1 are established by God for the purposes given, we ought to be subject to2 all their lawful commands3 for the Lord’s sake, not merely to avoid punishment, but for conscience’ sake. We ought also to make supplications and prayers for rulers and all who are in authority, that under them we may live a quiet and peaceful life in all godliness and honesty.4

(1) Original, magistrates
(2) Pro 16:14-15; 19:12; 20:2; 24:21-22; 25:15; 28:2; Rom 13:1-7; Tit 3:1; 1Pe 2:13-14
(3) Dan 1:8; 3:4-6,16-18; 6:5-10,22; Mat 22:21; Act 4:19-20; 5:29
(4) Jer 29:7; 1Ti 2:1-4